Are the “parental cells” (undifferentiated/immature) which have not yet been through regeneration process and transformation into specialized cells from which the different human tissues and thus organs are created.
They remain undifferentiated/immature until a stimulus to intervene and help them to develop into specialized cells, in order to fulfill a particular function (become tissue or organ cells). They can be renewed and multiplied for long periods. They also have the potential to differentiate and to develop into cells with specific functions such as those of heart, lung, skin, etc.
Stem cells renew our blood, skin, bone marrow and immunity system. Lastly, it is noteworthy that these cells are found, in high concentrations, in the umbilical cord and after birth they continue to multiply.
Stem cells have the extraordinary ability to create new tissues when they divide and develop. This ability, makes them unique and much important and shows great therapeutic potential for disorders of all organs.
Stem cells of the umbilical cord, represent a very important alternative for blood transplantations for genetic and oncologic diseases and differ from the rest cells of the body. Their usefulness has been proved after numerous studies, made by scientists all over the world.
Starting from 1988, the stem cells are used successfully for the treatment of various blood diseases, diseases of the immune system as well as in some forms of cancer. The number of diseases that can be treated by the use of stem cells exceeds 80.
Immune system disorders
“In diseases of the immune system when are threatening the patient’s life, stem cell transplantation can give to the patient the opportunity for full and definitive treatment” – International Institute of Child Health and Human Development.
Leukemia: Over 2000 children are diagnosed with leukemia each year due to deficiencies of the immune system.
Multiple Myeloma: Worldwide, multiple myeloma affects approximately 1-5 people per 100,000 population per year and represents 0.8% of all cancer cases.
Sickle cell anemia: About 250,000 babies worldwide are born with a severe form of this disease.
Lymphoma: Approximately 628 415 people are currently diagnosed with lymphoma or are in remission.
Thalassemia: 5% of the world’s population is carrying a gene that causes thalassemia.
Multiple sclerosis: is a degenerative, autoimmune disease caused by hyperfunction of the immune system and affect the central nervous system (CNS).
Crohn’s disease: Chronic inflammatory disease which can involve any portion of the gastrointestinal tract.
Lupus: Discoid or Systematic. Rheumatic disease and one of the most serious autoimmune diseases.
The use of stem cells for the treatment of autoimmune diseases appears to have the best and lasting therapeutic effects.
Diabetes: Every year more than 70,000 children develop type 1 diabetes, diseases about 200 per day.
Alzheimer: Now worldwide are diagnosed with Alzheimer disease more than 18 million patients. It is predicted that this number will double by 2025.
Parkinson: Between 7 and 10 million people worldwide are diagnosed with Parkinson.
Cerebral palsy: 10,000 infants and children each year are diagnosed with cerebral palsy, spinal cord injury. There are currently over six million people who have been diagnosed with spinal cord injuries.
Stroke: According to the World Health Organization, each year approximately 15 million people are experiencing a stroke.
Muscular dystrophy: Genetic disorder that affects about 500-600 infants each year in the US (Statistics on muscular dystrophy). Gene therapy with bone marrow stem cells, tissue, cardiac muscle cells, cartilage tendons, adipose tissue and biopharmaceuticals is used.
Other diseases of the stem cell:
Congenital diseases of the immunity system:
The detailed list of the diseases that can be cured by stem cells is permanently growing.
Your kid 100%, biological parents 0-50%, biological siblings 0-75%, close relatives 0-20%.
The hematopoietic stem cells are cells that generate other types of blood cells.
The hematopoietic stem cells are responsible for maintaining constant the immune protection of every type of cell of the body. The hematopoietic stem cells may renew and differentiate in various types of specialized cells, they may stimulate the bone marrow and they may act upon the cellular apoptosis. The umbilical cord blood is an important source of hematopoietic stem cells. The umbilical cord blood is the blood that circulates between the placenta and the umbilical cord during the pregnancy. This blood is rich in stem cells. The blood and tissue of the umbilical cord may be collected both during a natural birth, and during a C-section birth.
The opportunity to collect these cells occurs only once in life. The sampling process is painless and harmless, it starts after the fetus is expelled and after the umbilical cord is cut, therefore it has no harmful effect on the baby or on the mother.
The mesenchymal stem cells are multipotent stem cells that may differentiate in a wide variety of cellular types. For this reason they can be used in regenerative medicine for the regeneration of tissues and organs.
Another important characteristic of the messenchymal stem cells is the possibility of proliferation of these cells, without them losing “plasticity” them.
The sources of these cells are:
The Mesenchymal cells mainly located in the portion of the umbilical cord. The collection can be made from a small piece of cord 15-20 cm, immediately after childbirth. The cells are developed into specialized cells and with the help of medicine, in the future, we expect their use in even more areas of medicine.